Kernuak rag Dallathorian
Cornish Notes for Beginners
5.1 Pez? How many?.........back
We can use pez with ez to ask how many are there?
Pez cader ez? How many chairs are
Note that we use the singular chair, not chairs.
Here are the numbers from 1 to 20:
1 onen, 2 deaw, 3 trei, 4 pager, 5 pemp, 6 wheh, 7 seith, 8 eath, 9 naw, 10 dêg, 11 ednak, 12 dowdhak, 13 tardhak, 14 puzwardhak, 15 pemdhak/pundhak, 16 whethak, 17 seithak, 18 eatack, 19 nawnjak, 20 iganz.
There are special feminine forms of 2, 3 & 4: diw,
tair, peder. (In practice there is little or no difference
in pronunciation between deaw and diw.)
There are three forms of 1: onen is used as a noun (there's one: ma onen), edn is used before a noun (there's one pub in town: ma edn tavarn en drea.), on is a contraction of onen which we use when counting.
Pez dean ez en scâth?......
Ma wheh dean en scâth
How many people are there in the boat?..... There are six people in the boat
Pez beuh ez en park? > ma tair beuh en park
How many cows are there in the field > There are three cows in the field
Pez pesk ez en moar? > Ah, ma liaz pesk en moar
How many fish are there in the sea? > Ah, There are many fish in the sea
Pez aval ez war an skoran? > ma pemp aval... onen,
deaw, trei, pager, pemp.
How many apples are there on the branch? > There are five apples, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Note: We follow numbers with a singular noun so instead of saying five apples we say five apple: pemp aval.
5. 2 Mutation (letter changes) after numbers:.........back
edn (one) causes softening of the first letter of a feminine word, in the same way as an does.
deaw/diw (two) causes softening of the first letter of a following word whether it is masculine or feminine.
trei/tair (three) causes breathed or apirate
mutation (another kind of mutation) of the first letter of a
following word, as follows:
c and k become h (although this is frequently ignored if the word starts with co-).
p sometimes becomes f (irregularly observed).
t is rarely changed to th.
The other numbers do not cause mutation.
5.3 Pana prez ew? What time is it? (pana: also spelt puna).........back
onen ar gloh: 1 o’clock; deaw ar gloh: 2 o’clock; trei ar gloh: 3 o’clock; pajer ar gloh: 4 o’clock; pemp ar gloh: 5 o’clock; wheeh ar gloh: 6 o’clock; seith ar gloh: 7 o’clock; eath ar gloh: 8 o’clock; naw ar gloh: 9 o’clock; dêg ar gloh: 10 o’clock; ednak ar gloh: 11 o’clock.
hanternoaz (or hanternoze): midnight
An prez ew hanterdêdh: the time is midday
An prez ew hanternoaz: The time is midnight
Use ouja to translate past, just as dialect speakers used to say five after three etc.
hanter ouja pemp ew: it's half past five. quarter ouja seith ew: it's quarter past seven.
(Note: ouja -after- is spelt ouga, udga or ugge in some older books.)
Dha or da: to
quarter dha seith: quarter to seven.
iganz dha deaw ew: its twenty to two. dêg dha dêg ew: its ten to ten
Note: Soft mutation is sometimes observed after dha/da although you can normally ignore it in Late Cornish.
Dro dha: about/appromimately
Dro dha wheeh ar gloh: about six o'clock
Other ways to ask questions:
Pana termen?: what time?
e.g. Pana termen wrig hei disquedhas? What time did she show up?
Ez gena whei an prez?: Have you got the time?
You can tack on me a pejy/pedgy or mar pleag if you want to say please.
Note: Instead of ar gloh
users of Unified and Kemmyn prefer ere (hour) and
may ask P'ere ew?
rather than pana prez ew?
5.4 Parts of the day & night..........back
dêdh: day; an jeedh / an dêdh: the day; noaz / noz:
night; dêdhtarth: daybreak; metten: morning
(until about 1000);
kenjoha: forenoon; dohojadh: afternoon; gothewhar: evening; tulgow: dusk
howldreval: sunrise, howlsedhaz: sunset
en termen an noaz: at night en jêdh or en dêdh: during the day
5.5 More expressions of time..........back
moy avar: earlier,
dewedhaz: late, moy
dewedhaz: later on, adhewedhaz/adewedhaz:
lately, nanjew termen: it’s about time/
already, alebma: ago,
kenz lebmen: before now/ already
adermen: on time
nehuer/newer: last night; de: yesterday; degenzete: the day before yesterday; hedhow: today; hedhow metten: this morning.
Dedhiow an seithan: Days of the week:
De Zîl: Sun.; De Lîn:
Mon.; De Merh: Tues.;
De Marhar: Wednes.
Deow / De Yow: Thurs.; De Gwenar: Fri.; De Zadarn: Sat.
Miziow an Vledhan: Months of the year:
We normall put miz (month) in front of the names of the months.
miz Genuar or miz