Kernuak rag Dallathorian
Cornish Notes for Beginners
This thing, that thing, these things, those things. (incl. sound file)
8 and 9
8.1 This thing, that thing, these things, those things..........back
this: To say things like: this house, this child, this road etc., just put an (the) before the thing you are talking about and ma after it.
e.g. an vor'ma : this road an wedhan'ma : this tree an park'ma : this field
that: To talk about that, just substitute na for ma.
e.g. an venen'na : that woman an scudel'na : that plate an jyn'na : that engine
these & those: To say these & those, just use ma/na with a plural noun:
e.g. an skitchow'ma : these shoes an dîz'na : those people
Note: the apostrophe is optional. It helps avoid confusion with the verb ma and negatives starting with na.
When you want to use an adjective, remember that it comes before the 'ma / 'na.
an venen hîr'na : that tall woman an maw gucky'na : that silly boy
an eglos coath'ma : this old church an cota du'ma : this black coat
Listen to Neil's lesson about "that black and white dog" (this requires "realplayer")
9.1 What would you like to have? : Pandra venja whei cowaz?.........back
Question: Pandra venja whei cowaz?
Answer: Me venja cowaz... = I'd like to have...
Me venja cowaz bolla tay: I’d like to have a cup of tea.
Me venja kenz... = I'd prefer...
Me venja kezs cowaz....=I'd rather have…
Me venja eva... = I'd like to drink...
Me venja debry... =I'd like to eat...
Another way to indicate preference is: gwel ew genam...
e.g. gwel ew genam tettes : I prefer potatoes.
A few drinks:
coffy: coffee tay: tea chocklat tubm: hot chocolate leath: milk
dowr: water sugan: juice
cor: beer cydyr: cider
dowr tubm Alban: whisky
dowr tubm Frenk: brandy dowr
tubm mollaz: rum
(for these last three it is common to just say whisky, brandy and whisky !)
gwîn: wine gwîn rooz: red wine gwîn gwidn: white wine
gwedran a wîn: a glass of wine
You can also put badna: a drop of or bolla: a cup of before the name of your prefered drink:
Me venja cowaz bolla tay! Me venja cowaz badna gwîn!
9.2 Asking for things..........back
One of the simplest ways to ask for something is to say:
pedgy rei dhem... : Please give me...
pedgy rei dhem badna cor: Please give me a drop of beer
pedgy rei dhem an morthol'na: Please give me that hammer
pedgy rei dhem pemp penz: Please give me five pounds
pedgy rei dhem moy leath: Please give me more milk
Note 1: pedgy means pray or please and does all of the donkey work in the above examples, enabling us to use a following verb in its unchanged/infinitive form.
Note 2: dhem means to me all in one word. Alternatively you can say dha ve or da ve which places more emphasis on the me.
pedgy rei hedna dha ve: Please give that to me.
Alternatively you can use the command form of the verb rei: to give. This is ro.
Ro dhem goz cota: Give me your coat
Ro dhem aval: Give me an apple
Ro an hesken dhem: Give the saw to me
Ro dhem dha abm: Give me a kiss
Ro tabm tezan dhem: Give me a piece of cake
9.3 To: dha, da.........back
In the above section you will have seen dhem and dha ve / da ve. Now look at this lot:
dhem or dha ve: to me
dhez or dha che: to thee
dhodha or dha ev : to him
dhodhy or dha hei: to her
dhen(e) or dha nei : to us
dhewh or dha whei: to you
dhodhanz or dha angei / dhongy: to them
Note: You will also see variations of the above forms starting with d.
e.g. dem, dez, dodha, dewh, dodhanz
9.4 What have you got?>: Pandra ez dha whei?.........back
Pandr'ez dha whei? > Ma quillan dhem.
What have you got? > I’ve got a pen.
Start with ma: there is, name the thing which you have got and end with dhem / dha ve (see section 9.3)
Ma car noweth dhem: I've got a new car
Ma scâth dhem: I've got a boat
Ma bike dha ve: I've got a bike
Ma looar broaz dhem: I've got a big garden
Ma moy vel dîg penz dhem: I've got more than ten pounds
Similarly you can ask:
Pandra ez dha ev? : What has he got?
Pandr'ez dha hei? : What has she got?
Pandr'ez dha'n flehaz? : What have the children got?
Pandr'ez dha nei? : What have we got?
Pandr'ez dha whei? : What have you got?
Pandr'ez dha angei? : What have they got?
You answer in the same way too:
Ma ...dha ev / dhodha
Ma ...dha hei / dhodhy
Ma ...dha nei / dhen(e)
Ma ...dha whei / dhewh
Ma ...dha angei / dhodhanz
You can ask: Fatla gena whei? : How are
you?, Fatel era whei a kîl?
: How are you doing?
Pandra whear dha whei? / Pandra whear dhewh? : What's the matter with you?
You can talk about illnesses in the same way as you talk about physical possessions, i.e. by using the same kind of ma + dha constructions used in section 9.4. e.g. ma annes dha ve, literally there is a cold to me.
Fatla gana whei? > Ma pedn droag dhem.
danz clav: a bad tooth pauz: a cough poan: a pain annes: a cold
clevaz an moar: sea sickness galar: pain (especially a stomach ache)
clevaz: an illness girr: stomach ache
9.6 Having things at your disposal - gen (with).........back
Gen means with.
If you don't really want to say that you own something but just want to say you've got it with you or that it's at your disposal, use genam or gena ve (with me) instead of dhem (to me):
Ma leath genam: I've got some milk
gen (with) has got personal forms, just like dha:
Ma ...gena ve / genam with
Ma ...gena che / genez with you (informal)
Ma ...genz ev / gonja with him
Ma ...genz hei / goshy with her
Ma ...gena nei / genen with us
Ma ...gena whei / geno with you
Ma ...genz angei / gonjanz with them
e.g. Ma cota stanch genam: I've got a water-proof coat with me
genam and gena ve both mean with me. You can use either but gena ve places more emphasis on me. Similarly, in the table above, the forms in the first column puts more stress on the subject (he, she, you etc.)
Pandr'ez gena whei? : What have you got with you?
Ez gena whei? : Have you got with you?
You can use these forms to talk about certain abstact ideas, such as surprise, shame, enthusiasm and sorrow:
Ma marth genam or Marth ew
genam: I'm surpised
Ma edrak genam or Drôg ew genam: I'm sorry
Mall ew genam cowz Kernuak: I'm keen to speak Cornish!
9.7 Possession: my, his, her, our, your, their..........back
The simplest way to indicate possession is to put one of the following after the possession in question:
ve : my che: thy ev : his hei: her
nei : our whei: your angei : their
pedn ve: my head tavaz angei : their language gwedran hei: her glass
lavrak whei: your trousers hevez ev : his shirt bleaw whei: your hair
bargen-tîr nei : our farm gravar-rose côth nei : our old wheel barrow
You can start with an (the): an esgis ve: my shoe an daama angei : their mother an skitchow whei: your shoes an sah ev : his bag an rowm nei : our room
Alternatively you can put one of the following in front of the possesssion in question:
a : my dha : thy e: his e: her
gon: our goz: your go: their
Note: Be aware that a (my), e (his), e (her) and go (their) cause changes to some following letters. Be aware but don't worry about the details at this stage!
goz cader: your chair, e bord: her table, gon fose: our wall, goz cor: your beer
You can, for emphasis, use both of the above ways of indicating possession at the same time:
gon tereath nei : our area goz darraz whei: your door e vejeth ev : his face
9.8 Dha beaw ew hemma? or Pew a beaw hemma? : Who owns this?.........back
There is more than one way to answer:
Peath ve ew : Something like It's my thing. Similarly, you can say: Peath whei ew : It's yours,Peath nei ew: It's ours etc.
Peath translates thing, matter/subject, affair, concern, stuff and lots of other English words.
A more forceful way to say it is:
Thew peath ve: It's mine Thew
peath hei/ev: It's hers/his
Thew peath nei/whei/angei : It's ours/yours/theirs.
In Late Cornish this is a common way of putting things.
A similarly forceful way of putting things is:
Me a beaw... : I own...
Similarly, you can say:
che/ev/hei/nei/whei/angei a beaw: I/He/She/We/You/They own(s)
This is a bit over the top for talking about routine possession. Save it for when you want to make a point of saying who owns something.
The commonest way of talking about possession is to use the the verb boaz with dha or the variation da.
Dha ve ew : It's to me
We've already seen constructions like: Ma hedna dha ve: That's to me.
dhem, dem or dha ve: to me
dhez, dez or dha che: to thee
dhodha, or dha ev: to him
dhodhy, dodha or dha hei: to her
dhen(e), or dha nei : to us
dhewh, dewh or dha whei: to you
dhodhanz, dodhanz, dha angei or dhongy: to them
Remember that we use gen instead of dha when we simply have something with us but it isn't necessarily ours. Ma quillan genam: There's a pen with me.