Gero nei desky Kernuak

What you are

           

Statement                                                  Negative

boaz descriptive present tense
tho ve (or) thoma  =  I am

nag o ve (or) nag oma     =  I am not

tho che (or) thosta = you are (s) nag o che (or) nag osta = you are not (s)
thew e (or) thewa   =  he is  nag ew e (or) nag ewa he is not
thew hei =  she is     nag ew hei =  she is not
thon nei  =  we are     nag on nei   =  we are not
tho whei =  you are (pl)     nag o whei =  you are not
thens =  they are     nag ens  =  they are not

 

 

 

Questions and Replies.

 

These are carried out in exactly the same way as in earlier examples, i.e.,

ew broaz an dean?’ ‘Is the man big?’ [‘broaz = ‘big’].

Ea, entei’ — ‘Yes, [he is]’.

Na, nantei’ — ‘No, [he isn’t]’.

 

* Note! When you wish to say simply ‘No, he isn’t’, without qualifying it further, you do not normally add on the ‘e’.   Thus, ‘He/she isn’t’ is simply ‘Nag ew’, but ‘He/she isn’t big’, would be ‘Nag ew e broaz’ and ‘Nag ew  hei broaz’, respectively.

Negative questions are carried just as before, utilising the negative statement form but with a different tone of voice.

 

Nag osta broaz?’, with change in tone of voice,  =  ‘Aren’t you big?’.

 

With the following list of adjectives and additional nouns, form new sentences as before.

glow = coal du =  black logas  =  mice lean =  full    lost /losh  tail
hîr  long tavarn  =  pub looez  =  grey mean  =  stone gwidn  white
gook  =  bonnet pooz  =  heavy hav   =  summer gleab  =  wet gwav*   =  winter 
yein  =  cold gwainten  =  spring tubm  =  warm kidniath  =  autumn  trawedhak  =  sad

 

 

 *Note: gwav & hav are pronounced as though the a is almost an o. 

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What you were  [1]

 

Condition of state  ‘I was tired’, ‘they were sick’, ‘the door was red’ etc.

 

Statement                                                  Negative

boaz descriptive past tense
tho ve (or) thoma  =  I am

nag o ve (or) nag oma     =  I am not

tho che (or) thosta = you are (s) nag o che (or) nag osta = you are not (s)
tho e (or) thova   =  he is  nag o e (or) nag ova he is not
tho hei =  she is     nag o hei =  she is not
thon nei  =  we are     nag on nei   =  we are not
tho whei =  you are (pl)     nag o whei =  you are not
thonjy (or) tho anjei  =  they are     nag o anjei   =  they are not

 

 

 

It will be noticed that some of the words are the same as those in the Present tense, illustrated on Page 10, but this is no problem as the context in which the words are used will obviate any misunderstanding.  Pronunciation: o in tho is here pronounced as in English low.

 

Questions and Replies.

 

These, as you would now expect, are again carried out in exactly the same way as before (see next page)

 

O Jowan gleab?’  -  ‘Was John wet?’

‘Ea, entei’.  -  ‘Yes, [he was];   ‘Na, nantei’  -  ‘No, [he wasn’t].

‘Nag o an tavarn lean?’  -  ‘Wasn’t the pub full?’

Ea, tho lean’  -  ‘Yes, it was full.’   ‘Na, nantei.’  -  ‘No, [it wasn’t].

 

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Another very useful word for Questions, and very easy to use.

 

Pandra  [or, when speaking quickly]  ‘Dra  -  What

 

To use this word, just stick it in front of the Question form shown above without any other alterations:

 

Pandra esta a kîl?  -  ‘What are you doing?’

*            Pandr’ew liw an darras?  -  ‘What is the colour of the door?’

 

( Liw an darraz  -  ‘[The] colour [of] the door’.)

 

*          An alternative and common alternative is ‘Pe liw ew an darras?’

 

 

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